Научное обоснование гипноза

Научное обоснование гипноза

В данной статье предоставлен перечень научных работ и клинических исследований, подтверждающих эффективность применения гипноза в терапии. Количество этих исследований увеличивается с каждым годом. Материал по понятным причинам на английском языке, заниматься переводом пока нет времени.

Alfred A. Barrios, Ph.D. провел мета-анализ существующей на тот момент научной литературы чтобы сравнить эффективность различных видов терапии:

  • Психоанализ —  уровень успешности 38%, в среднем за 600 сеансов.
  • Поведенческая терапия (Wolpian) —  уровень успешности 72%, в среднем за 22 сеанса.
  • Гипнотерапия —  уровень успешности 93%, в среднем за 6 сеансов.

 
Источник: Barrios, Alfred A. «Hypnotherapy: A Reappraisal,» Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice (1970)

Далее следует перечень опубликованных научных работ, сгруппированных по разным заболеваниям.

Социальные страхи и фобии

 

Другие страхи и фобии

Student test anxiety : Students taught self-hypnosis showed a significant reduction in anxiety scores (maintained at 6-month follow-up) then a control group.1

Public speaking : The group who received hypnosis had a greater expectation for change and that change was achieved, than those who had non-hypnotic treatment.2

Fear of flying : 50% of patients afraid of flying were improved or cured after Hypnosis treatment.3

References:
1Stanton, H. E. (1994)
2Schoenberger, N. E.; Kirsch, I.; Gearan, P.; Montgomery, G.; Pastyrnak, S.L. (1997).
3Spiegel, D. (1998) Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6

Заикание

 

Астма

Hypnosis has been shown to alleviate the subjective distress of patients with asthma: there were less frequent attacks, and less medication was required. 1
In another study comparing Hypnosis and relaxation therapy the improvement with the Hypnotherapy group was much greater. And only Hypnosis subjects showed an improvement in physiologic measures of respiration. 2
References:
1 Maher-Loughnan, G.P. (1970). «Hypnosis and AutoHypnosis for the Treatment of Asthma.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 18, 1- 14.
2 Maher-Loughnan, G.P., MacDonald, N., Mason, A.A. & Fry, L. (1962). «Controlled Trial of Hypnosis in the Symptomatic Treatment of Asthma.» British Medical Journal, 2, 371-376.

Роды без боли

 

Hypnotherapy has been used successfully to prolong pregnancy and prevent premature delivery. 1
In Britain 55% of birthing women using hypnosis required no medication for pain relief, compared with 22% of women in non-hypnosis groups. In two other reports 58% of women using hypnotic analgesia required no medication. And five other reports quoted 60-79% of women using hypnosis required no medication. Check out www.easybirthing.com/science_and_research .
In another study subjects given hypnosis reported reduced pain, shorter stage 1 labours, less medication, higher Apgar scores, more frequent spontaneous deliveries than other group. Some had lower depression scores after birth than the other groups.2
References:
1Schwartz, M. (1963) The Cessation of Labor Using Hypnotic Techniques.» American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 5, 211-213.
2Harmon, T.M., Hynan, M., & Tyre, T.E. (1990). «Improved obstetric outcomes using hypnotic analgesia and skill mastery combined with childbirth education.» Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 525, 530, 1990.

Депрессия

Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Depression: An Empirical Study: To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a “probably efficacious” treatment for depression. 1
Alternative Treatments for Long-Term Depressed Mood: Meditation and Hypnosis The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness to two alternative treatments for long-term depressed mood: mindfulness meditation and hypnosis. The need to find effective treatments for those suffering from long-term low-to-moderate level depression has been known for over a century. Although, there have been some recent advances in the types of drug and psychotherapy treatments available for this condition, some people do not respond to such interventions, have considerable side effects (from the drugs), or are not satisfied for other reasons with these treatment options.
The present study represents an innovative investigation into two alternatives to traditional treatments for long-term depressed mood: mindfulness meditation (plus gentle hatha yoga) and hypnosis in a group therapy format. Although both meditation and hypnosis have shown success in treating stress, anxiety, and pain in studies of non-clinical populations, neither has been systematically investigated as a possible treatment for long-term depressed mood.2
References:
1Assen Alladin and Alisha Alibhai (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000.
2Spiegel, D. MD; Butler, L.D. Ph.D. Xin-Hua Chen; Abramson, M. DDS, Waelde, L. Ph.D. Mental Insight Foundation

Дерматиты

Most clinicians and researchers agree that stress affects the course of dermatitis and eczema, and reducing stress levels has a positive effect on the course of the disease. Emotional factors have been shown to have a strong correlation with onset of the disease and also with flare-ups. Further more, several documented case studies have revealed that hypnosis can offer a successful treatment for sufferers.
References:
Kantor, S.D. (1990).Stress and psoriasis. Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, California 94301. Cutis (USA) Oct 1990, 46 (4) p321-2

Управление болью

Hypnosis was found to be effective in reducing pain and discomfort associated with repeated unpleasant medical interventions in a study of children with cancer.1
A significant reduction of pain and dysphoria was found following Hypnosis in a study of 19 patients with a variety of musculoskeletal disorders.2
References:
1Hilgard, E.R. (1977). «Divided Consciousness: Multiple Controls in Human Thought and Action». NY: John Wiley. 1977
2Domangue, B.B., Margolis, C.G., Lieberman, D. & Kaji, H. (1985). Biochemical Correlates of Hypnoanalgesia in Arthritic Pain Patients.» Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 235-238

Hypnotherapy is one of the most successful treatment methods, giving 80+% success rate for abdominal pain and distension. It often results in assisting with other problems such as migraine and tension headaches. With patients who have severe chronic IBS, it was Hypnotherapy patients that showed dramatic improvement in all measures, and they maintained that improvement at a two year follow-up.

References:
Whorwell P.J; Prior A; Faragher E.B. (1988 & 1987). Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Faragher, E.B. (1984). «Controlled Trial of Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Severe Refractory Irritable-Bowel Syndrome.» Lancet, pp. 1232-1234. Whorwell, P.J., Prior, A. & Colgan, S.M. (1987). «Hypnotherapy in Severe Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Further Experience.» Gut, 28, 423-425.

Синдром раздраженного кишечника

There are a number of clinical studies and a body of research on the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Likewise, there exists research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in the treatment of IBS. However, there is little written about the integration of CBT and hypnotherapy in the treatment of IBS and a lack of clinical information about IBS-induced agoraphobia. This paper describes the aetiology and treatment of IBS-induced agoraphobia. Cognitive, behavioural, and hypnotherapeutic techniques are integrated to provide an effective cognitive-behavioural hypnotherapy (CBH) treatment for IBS-induced agoraphobia. This CBH approach for treating IBS-induced agoraphobia is described and clinical data are reported. (2)
References:
Golden W.L. (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000

Хронические головные боли и мигрень

Hypnosis is highly effective in the treatment of chronic migraine headaches. All Hypnotic methods appear to be superior to standard treatment relying on pharmacological approaches alone. Patients treated with Hypnosis had a significant reduction in severity and the number of attacks compared to a control group treated with traditional medications. At the one year follow-up the number of patients in the Hypnosis group who had no headaches for over three months was significantly higher.
References:
Anderson, J.A., Basker, M.A, Dalton, R. (1975). «Migraine and Hypnotherapy.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 23, 48-58.

The 12-member National Institute of Health Technology Assessment Panel on Integration of Behavioral and Relaxation Approaches into the Treatment of Chronic Pain and Insomnia (1996) reviewed outcome studies on hypnosis with cancer pain and concluded that research evidence was strong and that other evidence suggested hypnosis may be effective with some chronic pain, including tension headaches. This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the effectiveness of hypnosis in the treatment of headaches and migraines, concluding that it meets the clinical psychology research criteria for being a well-established and efficacious treatment and is virtually free of the side effects, risks of adverse reactions, and ongoing expense associated with medication treatments.
References:
Hammond C. (2000) The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis; Volume 55, Number 2 — May 2000

Бросить курить

In a recent stop smoking study, where smokers attended individual hypnotherapy for stop smoking over three sessions, 81% had stopped smoking after the treatment ended, and at a 12 month follow-up nearly 50% remained smoke free. And 95% of the people were satisfied with their treatment.
References:
Elkins GR, Rajab MH. (2004) «Clinical hypnosis for Smoking Cessation: preliminary results of a three session intervention.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 2004 Jan; 52 (1):73-81

Преодоление стресса и перенапряжения

A trial compared Hypnosis with biofeedback or a combination of both. All groups had significant reduction in blood pressure.1 However, at six-month follow-up only patients receiving Hypnosis had maintained the reduction.2
References:
1Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1977). «The Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures for Essential Hypertension.» International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 25, 335-347.
2Friedman, H. & Taub, H. (1978). «A Six Month Follow-up of the Use of Hypnosis and Biofeedback Procedures in Essential Hypertension.» American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 184-188

Пост-операционное восстановление

Patients trained with Hypnosis before surgery had significantly shorter stays in hospital. Research shows that Hypnosis methods have been used successfully for anxiety associated with medical procedures.
References:
Rapkin, D.A., Straubing, M., Singh, A. & Holroyd, J.C. (1988). «Guided Imagery and Hypnosis: Effect on Acute Recovery from Head and Neck Cancer Surgery» Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, Asheville, N.C. Spiegel, D, (1998). Report in the Harvard Mental Health Letter, September 1998, vol. 15, p. 5-6.

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